SO si SUCH

                                 

SO si SUCH

 

 

 

  • SO

 

Dupa “so” urmeaza un adjectiv sau un adverb, precum si determinantii

“much”, “many”, “little” si “few”.

 

The book is so good.

 

What you are telling me is so amazing!

 

They left so far away.

 

This artist sings so beautifully.

 

There were so many people in the market.

 

So much has been said about it.

 

Pentru a exprima motivul si rezultatul (cauza si efectul):

 

 

  • SO …. THAT….

 

Dupa SO urmeaza un adjectiv, iar dupa THAT urmeaza o propozitie.

 

The book was so good that I read it a second time.

 

She is so sleepy that she can barely keep her eyes open.

 

La fel putem avea si:

 

  • SO …. AS TO….

 

He was so stupid as to take whatever she said for granted.

 

Your grandmother is so kind as to do everything you want.

 

 

  • SUCH

 

 

  •  Cu adjective si substantive:

 

Such nice people

 

It’s such a beautiful day!

 

 

Pentru a exprima motivul si rezultatul (cauza si efectul):

 

  • SUCH (a/an) …. THAT….

 

Dupa SUCH urmeaza un adjectiv si un  substantiv, iar dupa THAT urmeaza o propozitie.

 

My friend is reading such an interesting book that he keeps on talking about it.

 

She ate such good cakes in Austria that she got fat during the holiday.

 

They have such good beer that people usually order more.

 

Observatie:

Daca substantivul de langa “such” este numarabil, atunci se pune articolul nehotarat (a, an). Daca substantivul este nenumarabil sau este la plural, atunci nu mai putem pune un articol hotarat.

 

Altele:

 

So that…

I explained a lot so that you could understand the matter.

 

So as to….

They left early so as to be there at 8 sharp.

 

Such as…

When the children visited the zoo, they saw different animals such as lions, gorillas, giraffes and so on.

 

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Pronume personale

Pronume personale subiecte si complemente 

 

Foarte des se confunda pronumele personale care pot fi doar in cazul nominativ (subiecte, nume predicative) cu pronumele personale care se pun pe pozitia de complement.

 

 

         SUBIECT

COMPLEMENT

I

Me => mine, mă, -mi-, imi,

You

You => tine, -te-, tie, iti,-ti-;

He

Him => lui, îi, -i-;  (prepozitie) el

She

Her => ei, îi, -i;  (prepozitie) ea

It

It => lui/ei, îi, -i-

We

Us => nouă, ne, ni;  (prepozitie) noi

You

You => vouă, vă, vi-, v-;  (prepozitie) voi

They

Them => lor, le, li-;  (prepozitie) lor

 

 

Este simplu sa vezi subiectul unei propozitii. Cele mai multe greseli se fac, insa, in folosirea pronumelor complemente.

 

Exemple:

 

Tell me a joke, please!  = Spune-mi o gluma, te rog!

 

He brought the chocolate for me = A adus ciocolata pentru mine.

*

I told you… = Ti-am spus eu…

 

We are going to invite you, too. = O sa te invitam si pe tine.

*

She went with him. = A mers cu el.

 

Can you give him this book? = Poti sa-i dai cartea asta?

*

I told her about the accident. = I-am spus (ei) despre accident.

 

They talked about her at the meeting. = Au vorbit despre ea la sedinta.

*

I gave it a bone. = I-am dat un os.

 

She has a dog and she walks it every day. = Are un caine si il plimba in fiecare zi.

*

Our parents gave us a lot of money. = Ne-au dat parintii o gramada de bani.

 

They believe in us and in our potential. = Cred in noi si in potentialul nostru.

*

Have they told you the good news? = V-au spus vestea cea buna?

 

Who laughed at you? = Cine a ras de voi?

*

I must talk to them. = Trebuie sa vorbesc cu ei.

 

The teacher sent them the results yesterday. = Profesorul le-a trimis ieri rezultatele.

 

 

Pronumele in cazul nominativ pun si ele probleme atunci cand sunt nume predicative.

 

In engleza vorbita se folosesc mai degraba pronumele complemente, chiar daca avem un nume predicativ (despre care stim ca sta in cazul nominativ).

 

It’s me at your door. = Eu sunt la usa ta.  (colocvial)

It is I at your door. = Eu sunt la usa ta.  (mai bine)

*

It’s him. = El este. (colovvial)

It’s he. (mai bine)

 

O alta problema consta in alegerea pronumelui dupa “as” si dupa “than”.

 

:

My sister is as young as me/I.  (??)

 

Corect: My sister is as young as I.  (verifica daca se poate continua propozitia cu predicat: My sister is as young as I am.)

Poti auzi, insa, si “My sister is as young as me” in engleza vorbita, colocviala.

 

La fel si pentru un comparativ:

:

He is younger than I. (than I am)

Colocvial merge si “He is younger than me.”

 

Atentie! Se poate intampla chiar uneori sa se schimbe sensul unei propozitii daca folosesti pronumele-subiect in loc de pronumele-complement (sau invers.)

 

Exemplu:

Her boyfriend would rather tell her than me.

Prietenul ei i-ar spune mai degraba ei decat mie.

 

Sau:

:

Her boyfriend would rather tell her than I. (than I would rather tell her.)

Prietenul ei i-ar spune mai degraba decat eu. (decat sa-i spun eu ei.)

 

 

 

 

 

Pronume posesive – Adjective posesive

Pronume posesive – adjective posesive in limba engleza

 

pronume posesive adjective posesive
I      => mine (al/a/ai/ale meu/mea/mei/mele) I      => my (meu, mea, mei, mele)
You => yours (al/a/ai/ale tau/ta/tai/tale) You => your (tau, ta, tai, tale)
He   => his (al/a/ai/ale lui) He   => his (lui)
She  => hers (al/a/ai/ale ei) She  => her (ei)
It     => its(al/a/ai/ale lui/ei-animale, obiecte) It     => its (lui/ei – animale, obiecte)
We   => ours (al/a/ai/ale nostru/noastra/nostri/noastre) We  => our (nostru, noastra, nostri, noastre)
You  => yours (al/a/ai/ale vostru/voastra/vostri/voastre) You => your (vostru, voastra, vostri, voastre)
They => theirs (al/a/ai/ale lor) They => their (lor)

 

 

Care este diferenta dintre un pronume posesiv si un adjectiv posesiv

 

Adjectivul posesiv sta in fata unui substantiv pe care il determina.

 

Ex.:

My room – camera mea

Your business – afacerea ta

His beautiful wife – frumoasa lui sotie

Her red shoes – pantofii ei rosii

Its shiny fur – blana lui/ei lucioasa (“its” se foloseste pentru animale sau obiecte)

Our nice garden –gradina noastra frumoasa

Your paintings – picturile voastre

Their beauty – frumusetea lor

 

Observatie: Daca un substantiv are mai multe adjective, adjectivul posesive este cel care se pune primul.

 

Pronumele posesiv este de sine statator.

 

Ex.:

The room is mine. (Camera este a mea.)

 

“Whose business is going to be taken over?” “Yours.”

(“A cui afacere va fi preluata?” “A ta.”)

 

“Whose wife is Helen?” “It’s his.”

(“A cui sotie este Helen?” “E a lui.”)

 

The red shoes are hers. (Pantofii rosii sunt ai ei.)

 

My cousin has a dog and this toy is its.

(Verisoara mea are un caine, iar aceasta jucarie este a lui.)

 

That nice garden is ours. (Gradina aceea draguta este a noastra.)

 

The paintings which will be sold are yours.

(Picturile care vor fi vandute sunt ale voastre.)

 

“Whose beauty was praised?” “Theirs.”

(“A cui frumusete a fost laudata?” “A lor.”)

 

Observatii:

 

  • “his” este si pronume posesiv si adjectiv posesiv. Evident, deosebirea se poate face doar din context, precum si din faptul ca adjectivul posesiv sta inaintea unui substantiv.

 

  • A nu se confunda “its” cu “it’s”!

 

“its” este pronumele posesiv;

“it’s” este forma prescurtata de la “it is”.

Vorbirea indirecta (Indirect Speech)


  1. “Open the suitcase, please”, they required him.
  2. “You can’t see your girlfriend now; she’s having a shower”, her father told Tom.
  3. “It is raining heavily now”, mum said coming into the room.
  4. “You should learn more”, the teacher advised him.
  5. “Put on your coat, Jerry, it’s cold outside!”, his mum told Jerry.
  6. “Mr. Smith teaches Geography in our school”, she told her friend.
  7. “I was sleeping from 3 to 5 p.m. yesterday”, he explained.
  8. “What’s your name?”, he asked her.
  9. “Why did you go there alone?”, Jane asked.
  10. “My husband had cooked a delicious meal for me by then.”, she said.
  11. “Have you ever eaten snails?”, he asked me.
  12. “Who is making that noise?”, she asked.
  13. “It’s Jerry. He’s repairing a pipe”, grandma explained.
  14. “We’ll have a wonderful day tomorrow”, the weather forecaster said.
  15. “I’m not going to write my homework now”, young Bobby said.
  16. “Has she already left?”, her classmate asked.
  17. “Don’t point with your finger, please”, his grandma told him.
  18. “I think you are a liar”, his girlfriend told her.
  19. “I read the whole chapter last night”, he boasted.
  20. “My grandfather eats too much”, Sebastian said.
  21. “You should always learn your lessons”, his mother advised him.
  22. “Where does your cousin live?”, he asked me.
  23. “Did you understand our teacher’s explanation?, my deskmate asked me.
  24. “Can I have a hamburger, please?”, she asked.
  25. “Who told you that?”, my father asked me.
  26. “I always try to do my job well”, he boasted.
  27. “What can I do for her?”, he wondered.
  28. “I like red roses”, my mother said.
  29. “They drank all my wine”, my friend noticed.
  30. “I wouldn’t buy this book if you didn’t like it”, he announced.