Present Perfect Simple – Present Perfect Continuous – Past Simple

  1. How long you (be) interested in books?
  2. I think I (like) reading books since I (start) secondary school.
  3. Really? And how you (become) interested in reading?
  4. Well, I (not want) to eat and I (use to) ask my grandma to read a story for me while I was eating. And this is how I (start)  to see how entertaining the books were.
  5. So you (read) for a long time… How many books you (read) so far?
  6. I couldn’t tell that! Who’d count the books?! I (read) a lot and I also (like) a lot.
  7. What kind of books you (like)?
  8. When I (be) a teenager I (like) adventure books, but for some time I (study) science books.

 
Vezi rezolvarile in videoclip:
 

 

HAVE si HAVE GOT

HAVE si HAVE GOT

 

 

We have a house and a nice car.
We have got a house and a nice car.
(We’ve got a house and a nice car.)

A avea (a poseda)  =>  have got

Numai la Present Simple

Afirmativ:   
I have got
you have got
he/she/it/ has got
we have got
you have got
they have got

Negativ:
I haven’t got
you haven’t got
he/she/it/ hasn’t got
we haven’t got
you haven’t got
they haven’t got

Interogativ:
Have I got…?
have you got…?
has he/she/it got…?
have we got…?
have you got…?
have they got…?

A avea  => to have

Present Simple

Afirmativ:  (dupa schema  S + V)     
I have
you have
he/she/it/ has
we have
you have
they have

Negativ (dupa schema S + do/does + not + V):
I don’t have
you don’t have
he/she/it/ doesn’t have
we don’t have
you don’t have
they don’t have

Interogativ (dupa schema  Do/Does + S + V):
Do I have…?
Do you have…?
DOES he/she/it/ have…?
Do we have…?
Do you have…?
Do they have…?

A NU se confunda cu urmatoarele:

Have to = have got to (a trebui sa, a fi obligat sa)

“Have you got to do all these?”
“Yes, I’ve got to do them all.”

Get – got – got (gotten)

When did you get your car?”
“I got it last year.

His sons have got a lot of presents.

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Articolul nehotarat

Articolul nehotarat

a; an = un, o => in functie de sunetul cu care incepe cuvantul precedat de articol

a => consoane si semivocalele [w] si [j]

an => vocale

· a bank manager [mænɪdʒə]; a great opportunity; a meeting, a jungle; a house; a BMW

· an idea; an interesting book; an hour; an orange dress; an umbrella; an LP

· !! a window, a whisper; a uniform, a university, a universe of my own; a year; a European

Cand se foloseste

· In fata unui substantiv care denumeste profesia, meseria sau nationalitatea ( dupa “to be” sau “to become”)

He wants to become a politician.
My neighbour is an Englishman.
Her husband is a catholic.
Dan is a plumber.

· Cu anumite expresii de masuri (cantitate, distanta, timp)

I think I’ll finish in half an hour.
He was driving at 70 miles an hour.
He’s an Englishman. He drinks tea once a day, at about five o’clock.
This would help a great deal/ a lot.

· Expresii cu “what a…”

What a pretty girl!
What a foggy morning!
What an interesting idea!
What a pity!

Testeaza ce ai retinut:

_____ experiment
_____ universal law
______ discussion
______ utopian idea
______ extreme sport
______ honourable man

Exercitii Present Perfect Simple/Present Perfect Continuous/Past Simple

1.”You (read) Think and grow rich”?

2. “Not yet. I mean I (start) reading it five months ago, but I (not finish) it.”

3. “Do you mean you (read) it for a few months?”

4. “Well, not exactly. Meanwhile, I (read) other books, too. I always (like) Anthony Robbins. In fact I (send) him an email. I (wait) for his answer since then.”

5. “Oh, this is interesting! When and how it (occur) to you to write an email? I never (think) about it.”

6. “To be honest I (think) about it since I (read) his first book.”

7.”I see. Well, it seems that you (be) very busy lately. I suppose you also (need) a lot of free time these months…”

Rezolvarea si explicatiile in videoclip:

SO si SUCH

                                 

SO si SUCH

 

 

 

  • SO

 

Dupa “so” urmeaza un adjectiv sau un adverb, precum si determinantii

“much”, “many”, “little” si “few”.

 

The book is so good.

 

What you are telling me is so amazing!

 

They left so far away.

 

This artist sings so beautifully.

 

There were so many people in the market.

 

So much has been said about it.

 

Pentru a exprima motivul si rezultatul (cauza si efectul):

 

 

  • SO …. THAT….

 

Dupa SO urmeaza un adjectiv, iar dupa THAT urmeaza o propozitie.

 

The book was so good that I read it a second time.

 

She is so sleepy that she can barely keep her eyes open.

 

La fel putem avea si:

 

  • SO …. AS TO….

 

He was so stupid as to take whatever she said for granted.

 

Your grandmother is so kind as to do everything you want.

 

 

  • SUCH

 

 

  •  Cu adjective si substantive:

 

Such nice people

 

It’s such a beautiful day!

 

 

Pentru a exprima motivul si rezultatul (cauza si efectul):

 

  • SUCH (a/an) …. THAT….

 

Dupa SUCH urmeaza un adjectiv si un  substantiv, iar dupa THAT urmeaza o propozitie.

 

My friend is reading such an interesting book that he keeps on talking about it.

 

She ate such good cakes in Austria that she got fat during the holiday.

 

They have such good beer that people usually order more.

 

Observatie:

Daca substantivul de langa “such” este numarabil, atunci se pune articolul nehotarat (a, an). Daca substantivul este nenumarabil sau este la plural, atunci nu mai putem pune un articol hotarat.

 

Altele:

 

So that…

I explained a lot so that you could understand the matter.

 

So as to….

They left early so as to be there at 8 sharp.

 

Such as…

When the children visited the zoo, they saw different animals such as lions, gorillas, giraffes and so on.

 

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Pronume personale

Pronume personale subiecte si complemente 

 

Foarte des se confunda pronumele personale care pot fi doar in cazul nominativ (subiecte, nume predicative) cu pronumele personale care se pun pe pozitia de complement.

 

 

         SUBIECT

COMPLEMENT

I

Me => mine, mă, -mi-, imi,

You

You => tine, -te-, tie, iti,-ti-;

He

Him => lui, îi, -i-;  (prepozitie) el

She

Her => ei, îi, -i;  (prepozitie) ea

It

It => lui/ei, îi, -i-

We

Us => nouă, ne, ni;  (prepozitie) noi

You

You => vouă, vă, vi-, v-;  (prepozitie) voi

They

Them => lor, le, li-;  (prepozitie) lor

 

 

Este simplu sa vezi subiectul unei propozitii. Cele mai multe greseli se fac, insa, in folosirea pronumelor complemente.

 

Exemple:

 

Tell me a joke, please!  = Spune-mi o gluma, te rog!

 

He brought the chocolate for me = A adus ciocolata pentru mine.

*

I told you… = Ti-am spus eu…

 

We are going to invite you, too. = O sa te invitam si pe tine.

*

She went with him. = A mers cu el.

 

Can you give him this book? = Poti sa-i dai cartea asta?

*

I told her about the accident. = I-am spus (ei) despre accident.

 

They talked about her at the meeting. = Au vorbit despre ea la sedinta.

*

I gave it a bone. = I-am dat un os.

 

She has a dog and she walks it every day. = Are un caine si il plimba in fiecare zi.

*

Our parents gave us a lot of money. = Ne-au dat parintii o gramada de bani.

 

They believe in us and in our potential. = Cred in noi si in potentialul nostru.

*

Have they told you the good news? = V-au spus vestea cea buna?

 

Who laughed at you? = Cine a ras de voi?

*

I must talk to them. = Trebuie sa vorbesc cu ei.

 

The teacher sent them the results yesterday. = Profesorul le-a trimis ieri rezultatele.

 

 

Pronumele in cazul nominativ pun si ele probleme atunci cand sunt nume predicative.

 

In engleza vorbita se folosesc mai degraba pronumele complemente, chiar daca avem un nume predicativ (despre care stim ca sta in cazul nominativ).

 

It’s me at your door. = Eu sunt la usa ta.  (colocvial)

It is I at your door. = Eu sunt la usa ta.  (mai bine)

*

It’s him. = El este. (colovvial)

It’s he. (mai bine)

 

O alta problema consta in alegerea pronumelui dupa “as” si dupa “than”.

 

:

My sister is as young as me/I.  (??)

 

Corect: My sister is as young as I.  (verifica daca se poate continua propozitia cu predicat: My sister is as young as I am.)

Poti auzi, insa, si “My sister is as young as me” in engleza vorbita, colocviala.

 

La fel si pentru un comparativ:

:

He is younger than I. (than I am)

Colocvial merge si “He is younger than me.”

 

Atentie! Se poate intampla chiar uneori sa se schimbe sensul unei propozitii daca folosesti pronumele-subiect in loc de pronumele-complement (sau invers.)

 

Exemplu:

Her boyfriend would rather tell her than me.

Prietenul ei i-ar spune mai degraba ei decat mie.

 

Sau:

:

Her boyfriend would rather tell her than I. (than I would rather tell her.)

Prietenul ei i-ar spune mai degraba decat eu. (decat sa-i spun eu ei.)