Pronume personale

Pronume personale subiecte si complemente 

 

Foarte des se confunda pronumele personale care pot fi doar in cazul nominativ (subiecte, nume predicative) cu pronumele personale care se pun pe pozitia de complement.

 

 

         SUBIECT

COMPLEMENT

I

Me => mine, mă, -mi-, imi,

You

You => tine, -te-, tie, iti,-ti-;

He

Him => lui, îi, -i-;  (prepozitie) el

She

Her => ei, îi, -i;  (prepozitie) ea

It

It => lui/ei, îi, -i-

We

Us => nouă, ne, ni;  (prepozitie) noi

You

You => vouă, vă, vi-, v-;  (prepozitie) voi

They

Them => lor, le, li-;  (prepozitie) lor

 

 

Este simplu sa vezi subiectul unei propozitii. Cele mai multe greseli se fac, insa, in folosirea pronumelor complemente.

 

Exemple:

 

Tell me a joke, please!  = Spune-mi o gluma, te rog!

 

He brought the chocolate for me = A adus ciocolata pentru mine.

*

I told you… = Ti-am spus eu…

 

We are going to invite you, too. = O sa te invitam si pe tine.

*

She went with him. = A mers cu el.

 

Can you give him this book? = Poti sa-i dai cartea asta?

*

I told her about the accident. = I-am spus (ei) despre accident.

 

They talked about her at the meeting. = Au vorbit despre ea la sedinta.

*

I gave it a bone. = I-am dat un os.

 

She has a dog and she walks it every day. = Are un caine si il plimba in fiecare zi.

*

Our parents gave us a lot of money. = Ne-au dat parintii o gramada de bani.

 

They believe in us and in our potential. = Cred in noi si in potentialul nostru.

*

Have they told you the good news? = V-au spus vestea cea buna?

 

Who laughed at you? = Cine a ras de voi?

*

I must talk to them. = Trebuie sa vorbesc cu ei.

 

The teacher sent them the results yesterday. = Profesorul le-a trimis ieri rezultatele.

 

 

Pronumele in cazul nominativ pun si ele probleme atunci cand sunt nume predicative.

 

In engleza vorbita se folosesc mai degraba pronumele complemente, chiar daca avem un nume predicativ (despre care stim ca sta in cazul nominativ).

 

It’s me at your door. = Eu sunt la usa ta.  (colocvial)

It is I at your door. = Eu sunt la usa ta.  (mai bine)

*

It’s him. = El este. (colovvial)

It’s he. (mai bine)

 

O alta problema consta in alegerea pronumelui dupa “as” si dupa “than”.

 

:

My sister is as young as me/I.  (??)

 

Corect: My sister is as young as I.  (verifica daca se poate continua propozitia cu predicat: My sister is as young as I am.)

Poti auzi, insa, si “My sister is as young as me” in engleza vorbita, colocviala.

 

La fel si pentru un comparativ:

:

He is younger than I. (than I am)

Colocvial merge si “He is younger than me.”

 

Atentie! Se poate intampla chiar uneori sa se schimbe sensul unei propozitii daca folosesti pronumele-subiect in loc de pronumele-complement (sau invers.)

 

Exemplu:

Her boyfriend would rather tell her than me.

Prietenul ei i-ar spune mai degraba ei decat mie.

 

Sau:

:

Her boyfriend would rather tell her than I. (than I would rather tell her.)

Prietenul ei i-ar spune mai degraba decat eu. (decat sa-i spun eu ei.)

 

 

 

 

 

Pronume posesive – Adjective posesive

Pronume posesive – adjective posesive in limba engleza

 

pronume posesive adjective posesive
I      => mine (al/a/ai/ale meu/mea/mei/mele) I      => my (meu, mea, mei, mele)
You => yours (al/a/ai/ale tau/ta/tai/tale) You => your (tau, ta, tai, tale)
He   => his (al/a/ai/ale lui) He   => his (lui)
She  => hers (al/a/ai/ale ei) She  => her (ei)
It     => its(al/a/ai/ale lui/ei-animale, obiecte) It     => its (lui/ei – animale, obiecte)
We   => ours (al/a/ai/ale nostru/noastra/nostri/noastre) We  => our (nostru, noastra, nostri, noastre)
You  => yours (al/a/ai/ale vostru/voastra/vostri/voastre) You => your (vostru, voastra, vostri, voastre)
They => theirs (al/a/ai/ale lor) They => their (lor)

 

 

Care este diferenta dintre un pronume posesiv si un adjectiv posesiv

 

Adjectivul posesiv sta in fata unui substantiv pe care il determina.

 

Ex.:

My room – camera mea

Your business – afacerea ta

His beautiful wife – frumoasa lui sotie

Her red shoes – pantofii ei rosii

Its shiny fur – blana lui/ei lucioasa (“its” se foloseste pentru animale sau obiecte)

Our nice garden –gradina noastra frumoasa

Your paintings – picturile voastre

Their beauty – frumusetea lor

 

Observatie: Daca un substantiv are mai multe adjective, adjectivul posesive este cel care se pune primul.

 

Pronumele posesiv este de sine statator.

 

Ex.:

The room is mine. (Camera este a mea.)

 

“Whose business is going to be taken over?” “Yours.”

(“A cui afacere va fi preluata?” “A ta.”)

 

“Whose wife is Helen?” “It’s his.”

(“A cui sotie este Helen?” “E a lui.”)

 

The red shoes are hers. (Pantofii rosii sunt ai ei.)

 

My cousin has a dog and this toy is its.

(Verisoara mea are un caine, iar aceasta jucarie este a lui.)

 

That nice garden is ours. (Gradina aceea draguta este a noastra.)

 

The paintings which will be sold are yours.

(Picturile care vor fi vandute sunt ale voastre.)

 

“Whose beauty was praised?” “Theirs.”

(“A cui frumusete a fost laudata?” “A lor.”)

 

Observatii:

 

  • “his” este si pronume posesiv si adjectiv posesiv. Evident, deosebirea se poate face doar din context, precum si din faptul ca adjectivul posesiv sta inaintea unui substantiv.

 

  • A nu se confunda “its” cu “it’s”!

 

“its” este pronumele posesiv;

“it’s” este forma prescurtata de la “it is”.

Exercitii Present Perfect Simple/Present Perfect Continuous/Past Simple

1. “What he (do) since he (arrive)?”

2. “Well, he (write) emails on the computer.”

3. “How many emails do you think he (write) so far?”

4. “I don’t know, but I’m sure he (write) a lot. He (write) for over an hour.

5. I wonder if he has a problem or something because he (write) emails yesterday, too.”

6. “You (see) him writing them yesterday?”

7. “No, but he (tell) me about that.”

8. “He (ask) you any help?”

9. “No, he (tell) me not to disturb him.

10. “I just wonder why he (write) emails for two days…”

Exercitii Past Simple / Past Continuous

1. “What he (do) when you (arrive)?”

2. “He (write) emails.”

3. “When he (start) writing them?”

4. “He (not tell) me that.”

5. “And what you (do) when you (see) him at the computer?”

6. “Nothing, I just (turn on) the TV.”

7. “I (suppose) you (watch) TV while he (write) emails.”

8. “Yes, but after a while he (tell) me to turn it off and go to my room.”

9. “Oh, that’s why you (read) the newspaper when I (knock) at your door.”

10 “In fact I (read) the newspaper and I also (listen) to music.”

Exercitii Present Simple / Present Continuous (avansati)

1. “What he (do)?”

2. “I (think) he (write) emails in his rooms.”

3. ” I (suppose) he (think) about moving with his girlfriend.”

4. “Really?? Now I (understand) why he (talk) to her every day.”

5. “Yes, they (discuss) all the details today.”

6. “Maybe he (move) next weekend.”

7. “You (think) he (be) happy?”

8. “He (be), but his friends (give) him a lot of contradictory advice these days.”

9. “Look, he (come)!”

10. “Hi, Bob, you (be) ok?”

Data in limba engleza

EXPRIMAREA DATEI IN LIMBA ENGLEZA

In exprimarea datei este obligatoriu sa cunosti cum se formeaza numeralul ordinal.

Am explicat pe larg cum se formeaza numeralul ordinal aici.

Avem doua variante in care putem exprima data: fie avem intai ziua si apoi luna, fie invers.

Exemple:

1 iaunarie

  • Scriem 1st January si citim the first of January;
  • Scriem January, 1st si citim January, the first.

2 martie

  • Scriem 2nd March si citim the second of March;
  • Scriem March, 2nd si citim March, the second

3 mai

  • Scriem 3rd May si citim the third of May;
  • Scriem May, 3rd si citim May, the third.

25 iulie

  • Scriem 25th July si citim the twenty-fifth of July;
  • Scriem July, 25th si citim July, the twenty-fifth.

31 octombrie

  • Scriem 31st October si citim the thirty-first of October;
  • Scriem October, 31st si citim October, the thirty-first

Si asa mai departe.

Cum citim anii?

Cifrele anilor se citesc cu numeralele cardinale, doua cate doua.

1974  => citim 19 74 => nineteen seventy-four

1851 => citim 18 51 =>  eighteen fifty-one

1135  => eleven thirty-five

2011  =>  twenty eleven

Pentru anii rotunzi citirea se face astfel:

1900 => citim 19 – 00 (Acest “00” vine de la suta (100), care se spune “hundred”)  =>  nineteen hundred

1800  =>  18 – 00  =>  eighteen hundred

Daca anul are un zero, acesta se citeste ca si litera O ʊ]:

1901  =>  nineteen O one

1703  =>  nineteen O three

Ce se intampla cu anii de dupa 2000

Anii 2000 – 2009 de regula nu se despart in zecile componente, ci se citesc ca un numar obisnuit.

2001  =>  two thousand (and) one

2008  =>  two thousand (and) eight

Ce prepozitii folosim cu datele

La fel ca si in romana, in limba engleza se poate folosi “on” (pe):

M-am nascut pe 15 iulie 1980.

I was born on 15th July 1980.

Voi veni pe 25 decembrie.

I’ll come on 25th December.

Ziua mea este pe 15 iulie.

My birthday is on  15th July.

Si tot la fel ca in romana, in limba engleza se poate folosi “in” (in):

Ziua lui este in aprilie.

His birthday is in April.

Mi-am luat carnetul de conducere in februarie.

I got my driving licence in February.

Cum intrebam “in ce data suntem?” sau “ce data este astazi?”

What is the date today?

What date is it today?

De preferinta ar fi sa fiti politicosi si sa puneti si un “please” la sfarsit. 🙂