Concordanta timpurilor in engleza

Concordanta timpurilor

 

 

 
 
Verbul din propozitia principala este la prezent:

 

ð     orice timp cere sensul a ceea ce vrei sa transmiti

 

He says Columbus discovered America.

He says he has caught a cold.

He says he is just going out.

He says he goes to the seaside every summer.

He says he is going to prepare a nice meal for his girlfriend.

He says he will bring me the book tomorrow.

 

Verbul din propozitia principala este la trecut :

 

ð     anterioritatea

 

He said he had already finished all the preparations for the party by noon.

 

ð     simultaneitatea

 

He said he broke the plate when he washed it.

He said he broke the plate while he was washing it.

 

He said he finished all the preparations for the party at noon.

 

ð     posterioritatea

 

He said he would bring me that book the next day.

 

He said he will bring me that book tomorrow.

 

Observatie: daca avem un adevar general-valabil, o lege fizica/chimica/a naturii:

 

He said the Earth is round.

He said water freezes at zero degrees.

 

Verbul din propozitia principala este la viitor :

 

Intezis viitorul in subordonata circumstantiala de timp (when, as soon as, before, after…)

 

ð     anterioritatea

 

You’ll go out when / after / as soon as you have done your job.

 

When are you going to learn all these?

 

ð     simultaneitatea

 

I’ll be working on my project while she‘ll be having fun on the beach.

 

Adjective cu terminatie -ED sau -ING

Adjective cu terminatie -ED sau -ING

 

 

•    Pentru a descrie felul in care se simte cineva, folosim adjective terminate in “-ed”

Stress – stressed
Frighten – frightened
Interest – interested

Reguli de scriere (transformari) la adaugarea terminatiei “-ed”:

1. “-e” final dispare

Amuse – amused
Tire – tired
Please – pleased
Surprise – surprised

2. “-y” precedat de consoana se transforma in “-i”

Satisfy – satisfied
Worry – worried

•    Pentru a descrie lucrul sau persoana care produce sentimentul, folosim adjective terminate in “-ing”.

Stress – stressing
Frighten – frightening
Interest – interesting

Reguli de scriere (transformari) la adaugarea terminatiei “-ing”:

1. “-e” final dispare

Amuse – amusing
Tire – tiring
Please – pleasing
Surprise – surprising

2. “-y” ramane neschimbat
Satisfy – satisfying
Worry – worrying
Please – pleasing

Incearca si tu:

1. It’s frustrating / frustrated to spend your time with frustrating / frustrated people.
2. I’m interested / interesting in reading interested / interesting books.
3. I can’t hear you because there is a disturbed / disturbing noise.
4. What a shocked / shocking film! My mother was completely shocked / shocking.
5. This is an exciting / excited adventure. I’m sure the children will be excited / exciting about it.
6. He was fascinated / fascinating by the new construction.

HAVE si HAVE GOT

HAVE si HAVE GOT

 

 

We have a house and a nice car.
We have got a house and a nice car.
(We’ve got a house and a nice car.)

A avea (a poseda)  =>  have got

Numai la Present Simple

Afirmativ:   
I have got
you have got
he/she/it/ has got
we have got
you have got
they have got

Negativ:
I haven’t got
you haven’t got
he/she/it/ hasn’t got
we haven’t got
you haven’t got
they haven’t got

Interogativ:
Have I got…?
have you got…?
has he/she/it got…?
have we got…?
have you got…?
have they got…?

A avea  => to have

Present Simple

Afirmativ:  (dupa schema  S + V)     
I have
you have
he/she/it/ has
we have
you have
they have

Negativ (dupa schema S + do/does + not + V):
I don’t have
you don’t have
he/she/it/ doesn’t have
we don’t have
you don’t have
they don’t have

Interogativ (dupa schema  Do/Does + S + V):
Do I have…?
Do you have…?
DOES he/she/it/ have…?
Do we have…?
Do you have…?
Do they have…?

A NU se confunda cu urmatoarele:

Have to = have got to (a trebui sa, a fi obligat sa)

“Have you got to do all these?”
“Yes, I’ve got to do them all.”

Get – got – got (gotten)

When did you get your car?”
“I got it last year.

His sons have got a lot of presents.

Vrei mai multe videoclipuri cu lectii de vocabular?

Click aici:

 

Articolul nehotarat

Articolul nehotarat

a; an = un, o => in functie de sunetul cu care incepe cuvantul precedat de articol

a => consoane si semivocalele [w] si [j]

an => vocale

· a bank manager [mænɪdʒə]; a great opportunity; a meeting, a jungle; a house; a BMW

· an idea; an interesting book; an hour; an orange dress; an umbrella; an LP

· !! a window, a whisper; a uniform, a university, a universe of my own; a year; a European

Cand se foloseste

· In fata unui substantiv care denumeste profesia, meseria sau nationalitatea ( dupa “to be” sau “to become”)

He wants to become a politician.
My neighbour is an Englishman.
Her husband is a catholic.
Dan is a plumber.

· Cu anumite expresii de masuri (cantitate, distanta, timp)

I think I’ll finish in half an hour.
He was driving at 70 miles an hour.
He’s an Englishman. He drinks tea once a day, at about five o’clock.
This would help a great deal/ a lot.

· Expresii cu “what a…”

What a pretty girl!
What a foggy morning!
What an interesting idea!
What a pity!

Testeaza ce ai retinut:

_____ experiment
_____ universal law
______ discussion
______ utopian idea
______ extreme sport
______ honourable man

SO si SUCH

                                 

SO si SUCH

 

 

 

  • SO

 

Dupa “so” urmeaza un adjectiv sau un adverb, precum si determinantii

“much”, “many”, “little” si “few”.

 

The book is so good.

 

What you are telling me is so amazing!

 

They left so far away.

 

This artist sings so beautifully.

 

There were so many people in the market.

 

So much has been said about it.

 

Pentru a exprima motivul si rezultatul (cauza si efectul):

 

 

  • SO …. THAT….

 

Dupa SO urmeaza un adjectiv, iar dupa THAT urmeaza o propozitie.

 

The book was so good that I read it a second time.

 

She is so sleepy that she can barely keep her eyes open.

 

La fel putem avea si:

 

  • SO …. AS TO….

 

He was so stupid as to take whatever she said for granted.

 

Your grandmother is so kind as to do everything you want.

 

 

  • SUCH

 

 

  •  Cu adjective si substantive:

 

Such nice people

 

It’s such a beautiful day!

 

 

Pentru a exprima motivul si rezultatul (cauza si efectul):

 

  • SUCH (a/an) …. THAT….

 

Dupa SUCH urmeaza un adjectiv si un  substantiv, iar dupa THAT urmeaza o propozitie.

 

My friend is reading such an interesting book that he keeps on talking about it.

 

She ate such good cakes in Austria that she got fat during the holiday.

 

They have such good beer that people usually order more.

 

Observatie:

Daca substantivul de langa “such” este numarabil, atunci se pune articolul nehotarat (a, an). Daca substantivul este nenumarabil sau este la plural, atunci nu mai putem pune un articol hotarat.

 

Altele:

 

So that…

I explained a lot so that you could understand the matter.

 

So as to….

They left early so as to be there at 8 sharp.

 

Such as…

When the children visited the zoo, they saw different animals such as lions, gorillas, giraffes and so on.

 

Vrei mai multe videoclipuri cu lectii de vocabular?

Click aici:

Pronume personale

Pronume personale subiecte si complemente 

 

Foarte des se confunda pronumele personale care pot fi doar in cazul nominativ (subiecte, nume predicative) cu pronumele personale care se pun pe pozitia de complement.

 

 

         SUBIECT

COMPLEMENT

I

Me => mine, mă, -mi-, imi,

You

You => tine, -te-, tie, iti,-ti-;

He

Him => lui, îi, -i-;  (prepozitie) el

She

Her => ei, îi, -i;  (prepozitie) ea

It

It => lui/ei, îi, -i-

We

Us => nouă, ne, ni;  (prepozitie) noi

You

You => vouă, vă, vi-, v-;  (prepozitie) voi

They

Them => lor, le, li-;  (prepozitie) lor

 

 

Este simplu sa vezi subiectul unei propozitii. Cele mai multe greseli se fac, insa, in folosirea pronumelor complemente.

 

Exemple:

 

Tell me a joke, please!  = Spune-mi o gluma, te rog!

 

He brought the chocolate for me = A adus ciocolata pentru mine.

*

I told you… = Ti-am spus eu…

 

We are going to invite you, too. = O sa te invitam si pe tine.

*

She went with him. = A mers cu el.

 

Can you give him this book? = Poti sa-i dai cartea asta?

*

I told her about the accident. = I-am spus (ei) despre accident.

 

They talked about her at the meeting. = Au vorbit despre ea la sedinta.

*

I gave it a bone. = I-am dat un os.

 

She has a dog and she walks it every day. = Are un caine si il plimba in fiecare zi.

*

Our parents gave us a lot of money. = Ne-au dat parintii o gramada de bani.

 

They believe in us and in our potential. = Cred in noi si in potentialul nostru.

*

Have they told you the good news? = V-au spus vestea cea buna?

 

Who laughed at you? = Cine a ras de voi?

*

I must talk to them. = Trebuie sa vorbesc cu ei.

 

The teacher sent them the results yesterday. = Profesorul le-a trimis ieri rezultatele.

 

 

Pronumele in cazul nominativ pun si ele probleme atunci cand sunt nume predicative.

 

In engleza vorbita se folosesc mai degraba pronumele complemente, chiar daca avem un nume predicativ (despre care stim ca sta in cazul nominativ).

 

It’s me at your door. = Eu sunt la usa ta.  (colocvial)

It is I at your door. = Eu sunt la usa ta.  (mai bine)

*

It’s him. = El este. (colovvial)

It’s he. (mai bine)

 

O alta problema consta in alegerea pronumelui dupa “as” si dupa “than”.

 

:

My sister is as young as me/I.  (??)

 

Corect: My sister is as young as I.  (verifica daca se poate continua propozitia cu predicat: My sister is as young as I am.)

Poti auzi, insa, si “My sister is as young as me” in engleza vorbita, colocviala.

 

La fel si pentru un comparativ:

:

He is younger than I. (than I am)

Colocvial merge si “He is younger than me.”

 

Atentie! Se poate intampla chiar uneori sa se schimbe sensul unei propozitii daca folosesti pronumele-subiect in loc de pronumele-complement (sau invers.)

 

Exemplu:

Her boyfriend would rather tell her than me.

Prietenul ei i-ar spune mai degraba ei decat mie.

 

Sau:

:

Her boyfriend would rather tell her than I. (than I would rather tell her.)

Prietenul ei i-ar spune mai degraba decat eu. (decat sa-i spun eu ei.)